Regardless of where you currently live and work as long as you were married in Turkey or at a Turkish Embassy and hold an official Marriage Certificate/Book you have the right to petition the court for a divorce in Turkey.
Grounds for divorce
Turkish family law originates from within Swiss Family Law. In Turkish Law there are two types of divorce cases: Contested Divorce and Uncontested Divorce. In both cases the ground for divorce needs to be qualified and especially for contested divorce the grounds needs to be proven by the applicant.
Grounds for Contested Divorce Cases:
Either spouse may bring a case to the court in order to end the martial relationship. The case must be brought to the competent court (usually the defendants region where they were last registered).
There are two main type of grounds (General or Specific) for contested divorce cases in Turkish family law.